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Technology Recap Till June 2017

Some Breakthrough You Must Know

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” Technology is advancing every day if your country is good with technology you are a powerful nation. Technology Effect each sector of a country. From my prospective it effect over economy and our politics. Every sector like medicine, culture is influence by technology. These technology listed below need years of research so you should know about them.”

  1. Practical Quantum Computer 

For learning about practical quantum computer first you need know about quantum computer basics. So basically a computer work on bits of information we know them like binary numbers. Those are just change in voltage, if we take it as a switch it is either zero or one. Everything we do on a computer system is done by these two bits. It doesn’t matter which type of computer you use like you laptop, personal computer or even you mobile phone. In current technology all transistors in you computer work on binary bit system. So how much different is quantum computer from regular computer. Quantum computer is system that will use quantum state of subatomic particles to store information.

How Quantum Computer Works – 

Quantum computer uses qubits as smallest units of information as which is also set to either zero of one. As defined by quantum science a single qubit can be any two level of quantum science such as a spin and a magnetic field or a single photon, because 0 and 1 are the only possible states like the photons vertical polarization.

In Quantum world the qubits don’t have to be just one of those, it can be in any proportions of both states at once this is know as superposition. But as soon as you test its value, let us assume  sending the photon through a filter it has to decide to either vertically or horizontally polarized. So as long as it is unobserved  the qubit is in superposition of probabilities for 0 and 1, and you can’t predict which it will be. But the instant you measure it, it collapses into one of the definite states superposition is a game changer. For classical bits can be in one of two to the power of four different configurations at a time that’s 16 possible combinations at which you can use just one .

In Detail –

Four qubits in superposition, however, can be in all those 16 combination at once, This number grows exponentially with each extra qubit 20 of them can already store a million values in parallel . A really wired and uninsured property qubits can have is Entanglement. A close connection that makes each of the qubits react to a change in the other state instantaneously no matter how far they are apart. This means when measuring just one entangled qubit, you can directly to use property of it’s partner’s without having to look Qubit Manipulation is a mind bender as well.

Superpostion

A normal logic gate gets a simple set of inputs and produce one definite output. A quantum gate manipulates an input of superposition rotates probabilities and produces another superposition as its output So a quantum computer sets up some qubits, apply quantum gates to entangle them and manipulate probabilities then finally measures the outcome collapsing superposition to an actual sequence of 0’s and 1’s.

What this means is you get entire lot of calculations that are possible with your setup all done at the same time. Ultimately you can only measure one of the results and it’ll only probably be the one you want. So you might have to double check and try again But by cleverly exploiting superposition and entanglement this can be exponentially more efficient than would ever be possible on a normal computer So, while quantum computers will not probably not replace our home computers in some areas, they are vastly superior One of them is database searching to find something in a database, a normal computer may have to test every single one of its entries, Quantum computers algorithms need only the square root of that time which for large databases, is a huge difference.

Now Lets Talk About Research in Practical  Quantum Computer –  Some big companies like Google, IBM, Microsoft  and Intel are working in this field indicating that quantum computer are achievable in some years. This year the fabrication of stable qubits, the basic unit of quantum computers is achieved. Until Now, researcher have built a fully programmable five qubit computer and more fragile 10- to 20-qubit test systems. Neither kind of machine is capable of much. But the head of Google’s quantum computing effort, Harmut Neven, says his team is on target to build a 49-qubit system by as soon as a year from now.

The target of around 50 qubits isn’t an arbitrary one. It’s a threshold, known as quantum supremacy, beyond which no classical supercomputer would be capable of handling the exponential growth in memory and communications bandwidth needed to simulate its quantum counterpart. In other words, the top supercomputer systems can currently do all the same things that five- to 20-qubit quantum computers can, but at around 50 qubits this becomes physically impossible.

2. Hot Solor Cell

New technology emerge this year is called “Hot Solor Cell” those covert heat to focused beams of light. These cells having nearly twice as efficiency as conventional photovoltaics and also lead to cheap solor power that keeps working at night. This Technology will be mainstream in 10 years but for now we know that it exists. These cells are built by team of scientists at MIT to capture far more sun’s energy then we currently able to do. They named these solor thermophotovoltaics.

The key step in creating the device was the development of something called an absorber-emitter. It essentially acts as a light funnel above the solar cells. The absorbing layer is built from solid black carbon nano-tubes that capture all the energy in sunlight and convert most of it into heat. As temperatures reach around 1,000 °C, the adjacent emitting layer radiates that energy back out as light, now mostly narrowed to bands that the photo-voltaic cells can absorb.

The emitter is made from a photonic crystal, a structure that can be designed at the nano-scale to control which wavelengths of light flow through it. Another critical advance was the addition of a highly specialized optical filter that transmits the tailored light while reflecting nearly all the unusable photons back. This “photon recycling” produces more heat, which generates more of the light that the solar cell can absorb, improving the efficiency of the system.

Hot Solor nano Tune panel

Black carbon nano tubes sit on top of the absorber-emitter layer, collecting energy across the solar spectrum and converting it to heat.

If the researchers can incorporate a storage device and ratchet up efficiency levels, the system could one day deliver clean, cheap—and continuous—solar power.The new design could lead to inexpensive solar power that keeps working after the sun sets.

3. AI that learns like humans.

AI or Artificial intelligence is future but this future is not that far way we use AI every day by simply doing a web search to making coffee. This technology is advancing rapidly and at the top of this list is behavior-reinforced AI. Like Google’s AI learn the game of game and beaten the champion player or learning self driving using AI of human errors. The technology is based on reinforcement learning, documented more than a 100 years ago by psychologist Edward Thorndike.

He showed that cats eventually learned how to escape from a box with a latched door by trial-and-error. That behavior was reinforced with reward (food) and eventually became an established behavior. This technology will be here in next few years. Reinforcement learning is a learning technology in which no one telling a machine what to do it learn from experience.

Cars

How self driving cars are perfecting itself in each new generation is done using this learning method. Computer create thousands of simulation to perfect its learning it also learn from practical and real time data like habits of the end users can also be a factor to make AI advance. Google is planing to achieve success like AlphaGo in other game those have complex set of rules. Automation is growing rapidly with reinforcement learning.

Reinforcement learning works because researchers figured out how to get a computer to calculate the value that should be assigned to, say, each right or wrong turn that a rat might make on its way out of its maze. Each value is stored in a large table, and the computer updates all these values as it learns. For large and complicated tasks, this becomes computationally impractical. Both Google and Uber say they are also testing reinforcement learning for their self-driving vehicles.

4. Curing Paralysis

Paralysis a condition in which a part of our body stops working like it has no sense. Researchers are working on the ways by those they can reverse this process and our body or any animal body can function again. We know that every part of our body somehow connected to our brain and if we can program our brain to reach those parts are paralyzed then we can thing about reversing them. Technology for this is achievable but not right now it will take humans another 10 years to master that but we are making breakthroughs.

Implant

Reversing Paralysis

In Recent years we are making progress in the field off controlling our mechanical arms or mechanical body parts with our thoughts now researcher are taking a step forward they are wirelessly connecting the  brain-reading technology directly to electrical stimulators on the body, creating what Courtine calls a “neural bypass” so that people’s thoughts can again move their limbs.At Case Western Reserve University, in Cleveland, a middle-aged quadriplegic—he can’t move anything but his head and shoulder—agreed to let doctors place two recording implants in his brain, of the same type Courtine used in the monkeys.

Made of silicon, and smaller than a postage stamp, they bristle with a hundred hair-size metal probes that can “listen” as neurons fire off commands. o complete the bypass, the Case team, led by Robert Kirsch and Bolu Ajiboye, also slid more than 16 fine electrodes into the muscles of the man’s arm and hand. In videos of the experiment, the volunteer can be seen slowly raising his arm with the help of a spring-loaded arm rest, and willing his hand to open and close. He even raises a cup with a straw to his lips. Without the system, he can’t do any of that.

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As complex as they are, and as slow as progress has been. Neural bypasses are worth pursuing because patients desire them.

5. Gene therapy for curing hereditary disorders

This is best illustrated in the case of a baby boy who had serious immune deficiency. That forced his parents to wear surgical masks and boil toys in water.

They believes the only option was to get a bone marrow transplant. But learns about therapy that replaced the gene that was destroying his immune system. It worked and the baby was cured.

Scientists have solved fundamental problems that were holding back cures for rare hereditary disorders. Next we’ll see if the same approach can take on cancer, heart disease, and other common illnesses.

This technology is available right now and achieve full this year. Researcher have been chasing dream of gene therapy for decades. The idea is elegant: use an engineered virus to deliver healthy copies of a gene into patients with defective versions. But until recently it had produced more disappointments than successes. The entire field was slowed in 1999 when an 18-year-old patient with a liver disease. Jesse Gelsinger, died in a gene-therapy experiment.

Medicine

2012 The European Medicines Agency approves the first gene therapy. For an inherited disease called Glybera. The drug treat Lipoprotin lipase deficiency, which causes fat to buildup in blood.

While gene therapies have been developing for several relatively rare diseases. Creating such treatments for more common diseases. That have complex genetic causes will be far more difficult. In diseases like SCID and hemophilia, scientists know the precise genetic mutation that is to blame. But diseases like Alzheimer’s, diabetes, and heart failure involve multiple genes.  The same ones aren’t all involves in all people with those conditions.

6. The Cell Atlas

This technology may reach us year to come but we know some things now. This could reveal “a sophisticated new model of biology” that speeds the search for drugs. Research suggests that there are about 300 cell variations. But the “true figure is undoubtedly larger.” This will allow discovery of new cell types. For accelerate testing of new drugs. Being the first scientist to describe cells. Hooke would be amaze by biology’s next mega-project. A scheme to individually capture and scrutinize millions of cells . Using the most powerful tools in modern genomics and cell biology.  

The objective is to construct the first comprehensive “cell atlas,” or map of human cells . A technological marvel that should comprehensively reveal, for the first time. What human bodies are actually make of and provide scientists a sophisticate new model of biology. That could speed the search for drugs. To perform the task of cataloging the 37.2 trillion cells of the human body. An international consortium of scientists from the U.S., U.K., Sweden, Israel, the Netherlands, and Japan is being assemble. To assign each a molecular signature and also give each type a zip code. In the three-dimensional space of our bodies. 

Three technologies are coming together to make this new type of mapping possible. The first is known as “cellular microfluidics.” Individual cells are separated, tagged with tiny beads, and manipulated in droplets of oil that are shunted like cars down the narrow, one-way streets of artificial capillaries etched into a tiny chip, so they can be corralled, cracked open, and studied one by one.

The second is the ability to identify the genes active in single cells. By decoding them in superfast & efficient sequencing machines at a cost of just a few cents per cell. One scientist can now process 10,000 cells in a single day.

The third technology uses novel labeling and staining techniques that can locate each type of cell—on the basis of its gene activity—at a specific zip code in a human organ or tissue.

These are some technological breakthroughs this year have happen more will be discuss soon.

Resources Used –

  1. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=JhHMJCUmq28
  2. http://web.mit.edu/
  3. https://case.edu/